# Difference between revisions of "V3D Composite Pelvis"

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==Pelvis Origin== | ==Pelvis Origin== | ||

− | The Origin of the pelvis segment coordinate system is defined as the mid-point between the mid-ASIS and the mid-PSIS. The length of the V3D_Composite pelvis is | + | The Origin of the pelvis segment coordinate system is defined as the mid-point between the mid-ASIS and the mid-PSIS. The length of the V3D_Composite pelvis is equal to the segment depth. By defining the Origin and length of the V3D_Composite in this manner the Center of Mass of the V3D_Composite pelvis will be more representative of the true pelvis center of mass. This is particular useful when computing the total body center of mass, total body moment of inertia and the total body angular momentum. |

==Pelvis Orientation== | ==Pelvis Orientation== |

## Revision as of 19:30, 12 July 2019

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The V3D_Composite pelvis refers to a pelvis segment created by C-Motion which is a variation on the Coda Pelvis. The pelvis segment is defined using the anatomical locations of the ASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) and the PSIS (Posterior Superior Iliac Spine). These landmarks are bony protuberances on the Pelvis bones that can be palpated on most (but not all) subjects. They are particularly useful if the subject is very thin, a cadaver, or a skeleton, and historically have been the reference points for defining the segment coordinate system for many experimental studies focused on determining regression equations for locating the hip joint centers. Unfortunately, these landmarks are not easily palpated, or more importantly, cannot have motion capture markers placed accurately on them, for overweight subjects. |

**This pelvis was implemented in Visual3Dv5.02.17. CMO's which use this pelvis, cannot be opened in earlier versions of Visual3D.**

## Pelvis Origin

The Origin of the pelvis segment coordinate system is defined as the mid-point between the mid-ASIS and the mid-PSIS. The length of the V3D_Composite pelvis is equal to the segment depth. By defining the Origin and length of the V3D_Composite in this manner the Center of Mass of the V3D_Composite pelvis will be more representative of the true pelvis center of mass. This is particular useful when computing the total body center of mass, total body moment of inertia and the total body angular momentum.

## Pelvis Orientation

The (x-y) plane of the segment coordinate system is defined as the plane passing through the right and left ASIS markers, and the mid-point of the right and left PSIS markers.

**Note that the midpoint of the PSIS markers is the same point as the SACRUM marker used for the Helen Hayes pelvis. Therefore, if a Helen Hayes markers set was used for the motion capture, a V3D_Composite pelvis can be created using the SACRUM marker twice (once for the left PSIS and once for the right PSIS).**

The x-axis is defined from the ORIGIN towards the Right ASIS.

The z-axis is perpendicular to the (x-y) plane.

The y-axis is then the cross product of the x-axis and z-axis.

If the markers have been placed accurately, the pelvis segment coordinate system will typically be tilted forward about 20 degrees, which is unfortunate for the calculation of the hip angle, but can be resolved using virtual segments (see Segment Examples 5).

## Hip Joint Landmarks

Estimates for the Right and Left Hip Joint Center are represented as Landmarks that are created automatically when the V3D_Composite pelvis segment is created. The location of the landmark is defined as:

RHJC=(0.36*ASIS_Distance,-0.19*ASIS_Distance+0.5*RPV_Depth- MODEL::METRIC::Target_Radius_ASIS,-0.30*ASIS_Distance)

LHJC=(0.36*ASIS_Distance,-0.19*ASIS_Distance+0.5*RPV_Depth- MODEL::METRIC::Target_Radius_ASIS,-0.30*ASIS_Distance)

These estimates are adapted from the articles

**Bell AL, Pederson DR, and Brand RA** (1989) Prediction of hip joint center location from external landmarks. Human Movement Science. 8:3-16:

**Bell AL, Pedersen DR, Brand RA** (1990) A Comparison of the Accuracy of Several hip Center Location Prediction Methods. J Biomech. 23, 617-621.

**Note that if the ASIS markers have been placed medial or lateral to the palpated landmark because the subject is overweight or because the markers can not be placed at these locations, it is important to measure the inter-ASIS distance and enter this value into the Subject Properties TAB.**

## Specifying the ASIS distance

For some subjects the ASIS markers may be difficult to place precisely on the ASIS, so they get placed laterally.

This results in an ASIS distance that is too big, and this directly affects the location of the Hip Landmark.

The ASIS distance is a Model Metric value that can be modified.

Switch to the Model Metrics Tab:

Select the ASIS_Distance item and select the Modify button

Enter the measured value of the ASIS distance.

The hip landmark will be based on this ASIS distance.