Marker Set Guidelines

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The following image displays a frontal image of a conservative full body marker set, but there are many reasons why it might be necessary to modify this marker set. This topic provides a set of possibilities.

In most cases, there are more than one common definition of a segment, so we have mentioned multiple possibilities.

Blue and green markers.jpeg

Marker Naming Convention

Marker names are derived from:

Serge van Sint Jan "Color Atlas of Skeletal Landmark Definitions: Guidelines for Reproducible Manual and Virtual Palpations" 2007 - Churchill Livingstone

Marker Color Convention

The different colored circles relate to the different roles of the markers.

Red Markers are used for both the segment definition and for tracking
Green Markers are used for tracking only
Blue markers are used only for the segment definitions (these can be removed for the movement trial)
Black markers are virtual markers used for both the segment definition and for tracking


Pelvis Segment

Visual3D Pelvis

Pelvis segment markers2.jpeg

RFT , LFT= Femur greater Trochanter [1]:p. 114
RICT, LICT= Ilium Crest Tubercle (Iliac Crest) [1]:p. 112
RIPS , LIPS= Ilium Posterior Superior (Posterior Superior Iliac Spine) [1]:p. 107

Coda_Pelvis

Pelvis segment markers4.jpeg

RIAS , LIAS= Ilium Anterior Superior (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) [1]:p. 106
RIPS , LIPS= Ilium Posterior Superior (Posterior Superior Iliac Spine) [1]:p. 107

Helen Hayes Pelvis

Pelvis segment markers3.jpeg

RIAS , LIAS= Ilium Anterior Superior (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) [1]:p. 106
SACR = Sacrum (Mid-point between RIPS and LIPS)

Thigh Segment

Visual3D treats the thigh as a geometrical primitive (conical frustrum)

The proximal radius is the geometrical radius of the proximal end of the thigh. You can use calipers to measure this or you can approximate this measure as one quarter of the distance between the greater trochanters.

Thigh Model 1

Thigh segment markers.jpeg

RFT , LFT= Femur greater Trochanter [1]:p. 114
RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120

Thigh Model 2

Thigh segment markers2.jpeg

RFCH, LFCH=Femur Center of Head [1]:p. 132
RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120

Thigh Model 3

Thigh segment markers4.jpeg

RFT , LFT= Femur greater Trochanter [1]:p. 114
RFCH, LFCH=Femur Center of Head [1]:p. 132
RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120

Thigh Model 4

Thigh segment markers3.jpeg

RFCH, LFCH=Femur Center of Head [1]:p. 132
RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120

Shank Segment

Consistent with our recommendation for the thigh, we recommend that users avoid the lateral knee marker as a tracking marker unless the medial knee marker is also a tracking marker.

Shank Model 1

Shank segment markers1.jpeg

RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFAL, LFAL=Fibula Apex of Lateral Malleolus [1]:p. 158
RTAM, LTAM= Tibia Apex of Medial Malleolus [1]:p. 148

Shank Model 2

Shank segment markers2.jpeg

RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFAL, LFAL=Fibula Apex of Lateral Malleolus [1]:p. 158
RTAM, LTAM= Tibia Apex of Medial Malleolus [1]:p. 148

Shank Model 3

Shank segment markers3.jpeg

RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 122
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFAL, LFAL=Fibula Apex of Lateral Malleolus [1]:p. 158
RTAM, LTAM= Tibia Apex of Medial Malleolus [1]:p. 148
RFAX, LFAX= Apex of the Styloid Process, head of Tibia [1]:p. 154
TTC= Right and Left Tibial Tuberosity [1]:p. 144

Shank Model 4

Shank segment markers4.jpeg

RFLE, LFLE=Femur Lateral Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFME, LFME=Femur Medial Epicondyle [1]:p. 120
RFAL, LFAL=Fibula Apex of Lateral Malleolus [1]:p. 158
RTAM, LTAM= Tibia Apex of Medial Malleolus [1]:p. 148
RTTC,LTTC= Tibial Tuberosity [1]:p. 144

Foot Segment

One Segment Foot

This model is consistent with a one segment foot segment.

foot markers3.png

One segment foot with additional markers.

Foot segment markers.jpeg

Multi-Segment Foot (Leardini)

foot markers.png

foot markers2.png

CA[2](FCC) [1]:p. 160 = Posterior Surface of Calcaneus
ST[2](FST)[1]:p. 160 = Sustentaculum Tali of Calcaneus
SMH[2](FM2)[1]:p. 160 = Head of 2nd Metatarsus
VMH[2](FM5)[1]:p. 160 = Head of 5th Metatarsus
VMB[2](FMT)[1]:p. 160 = Tuberosity of 5th Metatarsal
PM[2](PM6)[1]:p. 160 = Proximal Medial Phalanx
FMB[2] = Base of First Metatarsal
SMB[2] = Base of Second Metatarsal

Thorax/Ab Segment

Thorax/Ab Model 1

This marker set is consistent with both a one segment torso (Iliac Crest to Acromium) and a two segment torso; lumbar segment from Iliac Crest to a projection of the T10 (or T12) marker onto a plane defined by the Iliac Crest and Acromium; thoracic segment from the projected T10 marker to the acromium.

Thorax ab markers.jpeg

Thorax/Ab Model 2

Thorax ab markers2.jpeg

Thorax/Ab Model 3

Thorax ab 1.jpg

MAI= Midpoint Between the Inferior Angles of Most Caudal Points of the Two Scapula
SJN= Sternum Jugular Notch[1]:p. 34
SXS= Sternum Xiphisternal Joint[1]:p. 37
RAC, LAC= Acromion
RICT, LICT= Illiac Crest Tuberble [1]:p. 112
CV7= Cervical Vertebrae 7 [1]:p. 31
LV1= Lumbar Level Vertebrae 1 [1]:p. 31

Thorax Segment

This marker set is consistent with the ISB recommendations.

Thorax ab 1.jpg

MAI= Midpoint Between the Inferior Angles of Most Caudal Points of the Two Scapula
SJN= Sternum Jugular Notch[1]:p. 34
SXS= Sternum Xiphisternal Joint[1]:p. 37
RAC, LAC= Acromion

A segment coordinate system consistent with the ISB recommendations is as follows:

Landmark SJN_CV7
Starting Point SJN
Ending Point CV7
Axial 0.5
Offset by Percent
Calibration Only
Landmark SXS_MAI
Starting Point SXS
Ending Point MAI
Axial 0.5
Offset by Percent
Calibration Only
Segment THORAX
Proximal Joint SJN_CV7
Proximal Radius 0.5*DISTANCE(RAC,LAC)
Distal Joint SXS_MAI
Distal Radius 0.5*DISTANCE(RAC,LAC)
Anterior Direction SJN
Tracking Markers
SJN
CV7
SXS
MAI

Upper Arm and Lower Arm Segment

The upper arm segment is defined from the head of the humerus (shoulder "joint") to the elbow.

In this example, the orientation of the upper arm is determined by the placement of the medial and lateral elbow markers. It is quite difficult to place the medial marker, so we often recommend a standing posture in which the elbows are flexed at 90 degrees and the frontal plane of the upper arm is determined by the axial axis of the forearm.

The forearm segment is defined from the elbow joint (e.g. distal end of the upper arm segment) and the medial and lateral wrist markers assuming that the wrist markers are placed laterally on the wrist; if the wrist markers are placed on the posterior surface, it is necessary to create landmarks that are projected. It is often convenient to use a digitizing pointer to identify these locations. Note that supination/pronation of the forearm causes the medial and lateral elbow landmarks to NOT lie in the frontal plane of the forearm, so they should not be used as the proximal medial and lateral markers for the forearm.

Recommended Posture for the static trial

Defining the segment coordinate system for the humerus is particularly difficult because there are no bony landmarks to assist in determining the glenohumeral joint center, and medial and lateral markers on the epicondyles are close together and often do not represent the axis of rotation of the elbow.

The following explanation is personal opinion and users should not accept this as a recommendation, rather as one plausible approach. Further work needs to be done in this area and users must decide for themselves.

The upper arms should be placed in the anatomical position, so as to minimize the movement of the scapula relative to the thorax.

The head of the humerus can be estimated by placing 3 markers (one anterior, one posterior, and one lateral) on the surface. Create a landmark by projecting the lateral marker on to a line defined by the anterior and posterior marker. It is a bit of a nuisance to place 3 markers at the shoulder, but the equivalent locations can be identified using a digitizing pointer.

Static markers should be placed medial and lateral on the epicondyles of the elbow. The distal end of the humerus should lie at the midpoint of these two markers.

Now that the proximal and distal ends of the humerus are defined, the orientation of the humerus must be defined. A recommendation by the International Shoulder Group (ISG)is to have the forearm flexed to 90 degrees elbow flexion during the static trial, and use the long axis of the forearm to specify the anterior direction of the humerus. The palms of the hand should face the floor.

Note that this is different than the approach that was recommended by C-Motion prior to Visual3D version 3.25, in which we recommended that the upper arm and forearm be in the anatomical position.

Markers should be placed on the most caudal-lateral point on the radial styloid (RS) and the most caudal-medial point on the ulnar styloid (US). The distal end of the forearm can be placed at the midpoint of these two markers, or as per the ISG recommendation at the US.

The long axis of the forearm is defined from the midpoint of the epicondyles (e.g. the distal end of the humerus segment) and the distal end of the forearm.

The radius value for the proximal end of the upper arm is half the diameter of the upper arm at the level of the head of the humerus. The radius value for the distal end of the upper amr is half the diameter of the upper arm at the level of the elbow.

There are two problem with using this anatomical position:

  1. It is challenging to place the medial marker well, which results in unwanted axial rotation of the humerus coordinate system.
  2. Many subjects have a "carry angle" at the elbow, which increases the challenge of identifying the flexion/extension axis.


Model 1

upper Arm markers.jpg

In this model, there are 3 markers surrounding the head of the humerus. The origin of the upper arm is the projection of the lateral shoulder marker onto an axis passing through the anterior and posterior shoulder markers.

RHLT, LHLT= Humerus Lesser Tubercle [1]:p. 65
RHGT, LHGT= Humerus Greater Tubercle [1]:p. 64
RSHO, LSHO= Shoulders
RHLE, LHLE= Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus [1]:p. 68
RHME, LHME= Medial Epicondyle of Humerus [1]:p. 67
RHNT, LHNT= Navicular Tuberle [1]:p. 94
RRSP, LRSP=Radius-Styloid Process [1]:p. 83
RUSP, LUSP=Ulna-Styloid Process [1]:p. 77
RHL, LHL, RHM, LHM= Lateral and Medial Head of Metacarpal [1]:p. 96

Model 2

upper Arm markers2.jpg

In this model the origin of the upper arm is an offset from the acromion marker.

RSHO, LSHO= Shoulders
RHLE, LHLE= Lateral Epicondyle of Humerus [1]:p. 68
RHME, LHME= Medial Epicondyle of Humerus [1]:p. 67
RHNT, LHNT= Navicular Tuberle [1]:p. 94
RRSP, LRSP=Radius-Styloid Process [1]:p. 83
RUSP, LUSP=Ulna-Styloid Process [1]:p. 77
RHL, LHL, RHM, LHM= Lateral and Medial Head of Metacarpal [1]:p. 96
RSAJ, LSAJ=Scapula- Acromioclavicular Joint [1]:p. 60

Head Segment

If the purpose of the head segment is for kinematics only, the following definition is easy to use. The proximal end of the head is at the acromium and the distal end is vertically above the acromium at the level of the ear.

Head markers.jpeg

all markers.jpeg

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 1.30 1.31 1.32 1.33 1.34 1.35 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.41 1.42 1.43 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.53 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.59 1.60 1.61 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 Serge van Sint Jan "Color Atlas of Skeletal Landmark Definitions: Guidelines for Reproducible Manual and Virtual Palpations" 2007 - Churchill Livingstone Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Serge" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; 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  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Leardini, A., M.G. Benedetti, L. Berti, D. Bettinelli, R. Nativo, and S. Giannini. "Rear-foot, Mid-foot and Fore-foot Motion during the Stance Phase of Gait." Gait & Posture 25 (2007): 453-55 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Leardini" defined multiple times with different content
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