Tutorial: IOR Gait Full-Body Model

From Visual3D Wiki Documentation
Jump to: navigation, search
Language:  English  • français • italiano • português • español 

Introduction

This tutorial explains how to implement the IOR Full Body Model in Visual3D.

The IOR Full Body Model is a combination of the IOR Multi-Segment Trunk[1], and the IOR Lower Extremity Model[2].

The naming convention used in this tutorial follows Serge Van Sint Jan's convention[3].

Downloads

Sample files may be downloaded here.

The zip file contains:

  1. C3D files which you can use to follow along with the tutorial
  2. A model template which contains the landmark & segment definitions
  3. A script which contains the planar & joint angle definitions
  4. A report template which plots the relevant kinematics (joint angles & planar angles)
  5. A completed CMO file

Target Placement

IOR full marker set.png

LCAJ/RCAJ[3] (LA/RA)[1]: Left/Right acromion[3]:p. 45
SJN[3] (IJ)[1]: Deepest point of incisura jugularis[3]:p. 34
SXS[3] (PX)[1]: Xiphoid proces, i.e. most caudal point of the sternum[3]:p. 37
CV7[3] (C7)[1]: Spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebrae[3]:p. 28
TV2[3] (T2)[1]: Second thoracic vertebrae[3]:p. 29
TV7[3] (MAI)[1]: Midpoint between the inferior angles of the most caudal points of the two scapulae [3]:p. 61
LV1, LV3, LV5[3] (L1, L3, L5)[1]: First, third and fifth lumbar vertebrae[3]:p. 29
LIAS/RIAS[3] (LASIS/RASIS)[1]: Left/Right anterior superior iliac spine[3]:p. 106
LIPS/RIPS[3] (LPSIS/RPSIS)[1]: Left/Right posterior superior iliac spine[3]:p. 107
LFTC/RFTC[3] (LGT/RGT)[2]: Most lateral prominence of the greater trochanter[3]:p. 116
LFLE/RFLE[3] (LLE/RLE)[2]: Most lateral prominence of the lateral femoral epicondyle[3]:p. 122
LFME/RFME[3] (LME/RME)[2]: Most medial prominence of the medial femoral epicondyle[3]:p. 120
LFAX/RFAX[3] (LHF/RHF)[2]: Proximal tip of the head of the fibula[3]:p. 154
LTTC/RTTC[3] (TT/RTT)[2]: Most anterior border of the tibial tuberosity[3]:p. 144
LFAL/RFAL[3] (LLM/RLM)[2]: Lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus[3]:p. 158
LTAM/RTAM[3] (LMM/RMM)[2]: Most medial prominence of the medial malleolus[3]:p. 148
LFCC/RFCC[3] (LCA/RCA)[2]: Aspect of the achilles tendon insertion on the calcaneous[3]:p. 162
LFM1/RFM1[3] (LFM/RFM)[2]: Dorsal margin of the first metatarsal head[3]:p. 173
LFM2/RFM2[3] (LSM/RSM)[2]: Dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal head[3]:p. 173
LFM5/RFM5[3] (LVM/RVM)[2]: Dorsal margin of the fifth metatarsal head[3]:p. 173

Segment Definition

Pelvis

The pelvis segment coordinate system is consistent with the Coda Pelvis, from which the Left and Right Hip Joint centers are automatically created.

IOR FB PELVIS 2.png

LIAS/RIAS[3] (LASIS/RASIS)[1]: Left/Right anterior superior iliac spine[3]:p. 106
LIPS/RIPS[3] (LPSIS/RPSIS)[1]: Left/Right posterior superior iliac spine[3]:p. 107
Pelvis Landmarks

1. Create SCRM:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: SCRM

       Landmark Name: SCRM

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RIPS
       Ending Point: LIPS

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.0    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.5
  5. Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

Pelvis Definition

1. Create Pelvis Segment:

  1. In the Segments tab, select Pelvis in the Segment Name box.
  2. In Segment Type, select CODA
  3. Click on the Create Segment button.
  4. In the Pelvis dialog:

       Define Calibration Targets
       R.ASIS: RIAS
       L.ASIS: LIAS
       R.PSIS: RIPS
       L.PSIS: LIPS

       Select Tracking Targets:
         LIAS, LIPS, RIAS, RIPS

  5. Close Coda Segment Markers dialog box
  6. Click on Build Model.
  7. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption


5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +X
       Distal to Proximal: +Y

caption

Thorax Segment

This marker set is consistent with the Rizzoli Gait model and the ISB recommendations.

IOR FB THORAX 2.png

LCAJ/RCAJ[3] (LA/RA)[1]: Left/Right acromion[3]:p. 45
SJN[3] (IJ)[1]: Deepest point of incisura jugularis[3]:p. 34
SXS[3] (PX)[1]: Xiphoid proces, i.e. most caudal point of the sternum[3]:p. 37
CV7[3] (C7)[1]: Spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebrae[3]:p. 28
TV2[3] (T2)[1]: Second thoracic vertebrae[3]:p. 29
TV7[3] (MAI)[1]: Midpoint between the inferior angles of the most caudal points of the two scapulae [3]:p. 61
Thorax Definition

1. Create Thorax/Ab:

  1. In the Segments tab, select Thorax/Ab in the Segment Name box.
  2. Click Kinematic Only.
  3. Click on the Create Segment button.
  4. In the Thorax/Ab tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: TV2     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.5*DISTANCE(RCAJ,LCAJ)

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: TV7     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.5*DISTANCE(RCAJ,LCAJ)

       Extra Target to Define Orientation
       Location: Anterior     SXS

       Select Tracking Targets:
         SJN, SXS, TV2, TV7

  5. Click on Build Model.
  6. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +X
       Distal to Proximal: +Y

caption

Thigh Segment

The RIGHT_HIP/LEFT_HIP landmarks are used to define the thigh segments. These landmarks are created automatically when the Pelvis segment is defined (so the Pelvis must be defined prior to creating the thigh segments).

IOR FB THIGH 2.png

LFTC/RFTC[3] (LGT/RGT)[2]: Most lateral prominence of the greater trochanter[3]:p. 116
LFLE/RFLE[3] (LLE/RLE)[2]: Most lateral prominence of the lateral femoral epicondyle[3]:p. 122
LFME/RFME[3] (LME/RME)[2]: Most medial prominence of the medial femoral epicondyle[3]:p. 120
Thigh Definition

1. Create Right Thigh:

  1. In the Segments tab, select Right Thigh in the Segment Name box.
  2. Click on the Create Segment button.
  3. In the Right Thigh tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: RIGHT_HIP     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.5*DISTANCE(RIGHT_HIP,LEFT_HIP)

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: RFLE     Joint: None     Medial: RFME     

       Select Tracking Targets:
         RIGHT_HIP, RFLE, RFME, RFTC

  4. Click on Build Model.
  5. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +X
       Distal to Proximal: +Y

caption

Shank Segment

The segment coordinate system is different from the conventional gait model because the shank segment is defined according to markers located on the tibia and fibula, not the femur as with the Conventional Gait Model.

IOR FB SHANK 2.png

LFAX/RFAX[3] (LHF/RHF)[2]: Proximal tip of the head of the fibula[3]:p. 154
LTTC/RTTC[3] (TT/RTT)[2]: Most anterior border of the tibial tuberosity[3]:p. 144
LFAL/RFAL[3] (LLM/RLM)[2]: Lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus[3]:p. 158
LTAM/RTAM[3] (LMM/RMM)[2]: Most medial prominence of the medial malleolus[3]:p. 148
Shank Landmarks

1. Create RKNE Joint Center:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RKNE

       Landmark Name: RKNE

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RFLE
       Ending Point: RFME

  4. Offset Using the Following AXIAL Offset: 0.5
  5. Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption


2. Create RANK Joint Center:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RANK

       Landmark Name: RANK

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RFAL
       Ending Point: RRAM

  4. Offset Using the Following AXIAL Offset: 0.5
  5. Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

3. Create RTTC_PROJ:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RTTC_PROJ

       Landmark Name: RTTC_PROJ

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RFAX
       Ending Point: RFAL
       Lateral Object: RTAM
       Project From: RTTC

  4. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  5. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

4. Create RSK_PROX:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RSK_PROX

       Landmark Name: RSK_PROX

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RANK
       Ending Point: RTTC_PROJ
       Lateral Object: Leave Blank
       Project From: RKNE

  4. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  5. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption


Shank Definition

1. Create Right Shank:

  1. In the Segments tab, select Right Shank in the Segment Name box.
  2. Click on the Create Segment button.
  3. In the Right Shank tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: RSK_PROX     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.5*DISTANCE(RFLE,RFME)

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: RFAL     Joint: None     Medial: RTAM     

       Select Tracking Targets:
         RFAL, RFAX, RTAM, RTTC

  4. Click on Build Model.
  5. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +X
       Distal to Proximal: +Y

caption

Foot Segment

The foot segment coordinate system is consistent with some version of the Conventional Gait Model.

The foot segment is created using the RANK/LANK landmarks which are described in the Shank Landmarks section.

IORFB Foot 2.png

IOR Single Segment Foot Markers.jpg

LFAL/RFAL[3] (LLM/RLM)[2]: Lateral prominence of the lateral malleolus[3]:p. 158
LTAM/RTAM[3] (LMM/RMM)[2]: Most medial prominence of the medial malleolus[3]:p. 148
LFCC/RFCC[3] (LCA/RCA)[2]: Aspect of the achilles tendon insertion on the calcaneous[3]:p. 162
LFM1/RFM1[3] (LFM/RFM)[2]: Dorsal margin of the first metatarsal head[3]:p. 173
LFM2/RFM2[3] (LSM/RSM)[2]: Dorsal aspect of the second metatarsal head[3]:p. 173
LFM5/RFM5[3] (LVM/RVM)[2]: Dorsal margin of the fifth metatarsal head[3]:p. 173

Kinetic Foot

Kinetic Foot Definition

1. Create Right Foot:

  1. In the Segments tab, select Right Foot in the Segment Name box.
  2. Click on the Create Segment button.
  3. In the Right Foot tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: RANK     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.5*DISTANCE(RFAL,RTAM)

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: RFM5     Joint: None     Medial: RFM1     

       Select Tracking Targets:
         RFCC, RFM1, RFM2, RFM5

  4. Click on Build Model.
  5. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +X
       Distal to Proximal: +Y

caption

Kinematic Foot

Kinematic Foot Landmarks

3. Create RFT_DIST:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RFT_DIST

       Landmark Name: RFT_DIST

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: RFCC
       Ending Point: RFM5
       Lateral Object: RFM1
       Project From: RFM2

  4. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  5. Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption


Kinematic Foot Definition

1. Create Right Virtual Foot:

  1. In the Segments tab, type Right Virtual Foot in the Segment Name box.
  2. Check the Kinematic Only Check Box.
  3. Click on the Create Segment button.
  4. In the Right Virtual Foot tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: RFCC     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.1

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: RFM5     Joint: RFT_DIST     Medial: None     

       Select Tracking Targets:
         RFCC, RFM1, RFM2, RFM5

  5. Click on Build Model.
  6. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: +Y
       Distal to Proximal: -X

caption

Virtual Lab

Virtual Lab Landmarks

1. Create Lab_Origin:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: Lab_Origin

       Landmark Name: Lab_Origin

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.0    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.0
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

2. Create Lab_AX:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: Lab_Origin

       Landmark Name: Lab_AX

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.0    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.1
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

3. Create Lab_ML:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: Lab_ML

       Landmark Name: Lab_ML

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.1    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.0
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

4. Create Pel_ML:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: Pel_ML

       Landmark Name: Pel_ML

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: Lab_Origin

       Existing Segment: Pelvis

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.1    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.0
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

5. Create Pel_ML_Proj:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: Pel_ML_Proj

       Landmark Name: Pel_ML_Proj

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: Lab_Origin
       Ending Point: Lab_ML

       Project Point: Pel_ML

  4. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  5. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption

6. Create VLab_ML:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: VLab_ML

       Landmark Name: VLab_ML

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: Lab_Origin
       Ending Point: Lab_ML

       Project Point: Pel_ML_Proj

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       AXIAL: 0.1
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark

caption


Virtual Lab Definition

1. Create VLAB:

  1. In the Segments tab, type VLAB in the Segment Name box.
  2. Check the Kinematic Only Check Box.
  3. Click on the Create Segment button.
  4. In the VLAB tab, enter these values:

       Define Proximal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: Lab_Origin     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.1

       Define Distal Joint and Radius
       Lateral: None     Joint: Lab_AX     Medial: None     
       Radius: 0.1

       Extra Target to Define Orientation
       Location: Lateral     VLab_ML

       Select Tracking Targets:
         Use Calibration Targets for Tracking

  5. Click on Build Model.
  6. Click on Close Tab before proceeding.

caption

5. Modify the Segment Coordinate System:

  1. Define the Segment Orientation as:

       A/P Axis: -X
       Distal to Proximal: -Y

caption

Planar Angles

To calculate the orientation of the trunk segments, planar angles are calculated to determine the orientation of the various segments relative to one another.[1]

To calculate a planar angle, you need to either reference the ORIGINAL or PROCESSED folder when defining a target. If your targets have not been filtered or interpolated, you will not have a processed folder and will need to use the ORIGINAL. However, if you plan to process your target data in any way, you should do this now, prior to creating your planar angles.

caption
This image was taken from the Multi-Segment trunk paper[1]

The following abbreviations are used in naming the planar angles[1]:

  • FE Flexion/Extension
  • LB Lateral Bending
  • AR Axial Rotation
Spine FE & LB Landmarks

1. Create RPV_AX:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RPV_AX

       Landmark Name: RPV_AX

       Define Orientation Using:
       Starting Point: LV5

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.0    Y: 0.0    Z: -0.05
  5. Do NOT Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%) (Meters when not checked)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark (Not generated for assigned motion file(s))

caption

FE Planar Angles

Below defines the orientation (flexion/extension) of the adjoining spine segments resolved in the pelvis coordinate system[1] .

NOTE: For the FE Planar Angles, the same definitions for the angles are used for both the left & right side. This means that different sets of signals do not need to be created for the left and right sides (as with the LB and AR planar angles).

Spine FE Definitions

1. Create Sp5_Sp4_FE planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: Sp5_Sp4_FE
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::CV7
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XY

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB Sp5 Sp4 FE.png

2. Create Sp4_Sp3_FE planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: Sp4_Sp3_FE
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XY

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB Sp4 Sp3 FE.png

3. Create Sp3_Sp2_FE planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: Sp3_Sp2_FE
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XY

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB Sp3 Sp2 FE.png

4. Create Sp2_Sp1_FE planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: Sp2_Sp1_FE
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XY

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB Sp2 Sp1 FE.png

5. Create Sp1_Pel_FE planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: Sp2_Sp1_FE
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RPV_AX
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XY

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB Sp1 Pel FE.png

LB Planar Angles

Below defines the orientation (lateral bending) of the adjoining spine segments resolved in the pelvis coordinate system[1] .

Spine LB Definitions

1. Create RSp5_Sp4_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSp5_Sp4_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::CV7
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB RSp5 Sp4 LB.png

2. Create LSp5_Sp4_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


3. Create RSp4_Sp3_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSp4_Sp3_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV2
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB RSp4 Sp3 LB.png

4. Create LSp4_Sp3_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


5. Create RSp3_Sp2_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSp3_Sp2_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::TV7
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB RSp3 Sp2 LB.png

6. Create LSp3_Sp2_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


7. Create RSp2_Sp1_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSp2_Sp1_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV1
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB RSp2 Sp1 LB.png

8. Create LSp2_Sp1_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


9. Create RSp1_Pel_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSp2_Sp1_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RPV_AX
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV3
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LV5
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RPV within the text option.

IORFB RSp1 Pel LB.png

10. Create LSp1_Pel_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


Shoulder LB

Below defines the orientation of the line between the shoulder targets (LCAJ/RCAJ) relative to the trunk segment[1].

Shoulder LB & AR Landmarks

1. Create RTA_OR:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RTA_OR

       Landmark Name: RTA_OR

       Existing Segment: Thorax/Ab

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.0    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.0
  5. Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%) (Meters when not checked)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark (Not generated for assigned motion file(s))

caption

2. Create RTA_ML:

  1. Click Landmarks button
  2. Click Add New Landmark button
  3. Create Landmark: RTA_ML

       Landmark Name: RTA_ML

       Existing Segment: Thorax/Ab

  4. Offset Using the Following ML/AP/AXIAL Offsets:
       X: 0.5    Y: 0.0    Z: 0.0
  5. Check: Offset by Percent (1.0 = 100%) (Meters when not checked)
  6. Do NOT Check: Calibration Only Landmark (Not generated for assigned motion file(s))

caption

Shoulder LB & AR Definitions

1. Create RSh_Th_LB planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSh_Th_LB
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RTA_ML
       2 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RTA_OR
       3 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LCAJ
       4 - TARGET::PROCESSED::RCAJ
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: YZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RTA within the text option.

IORFB RSh Th LB.png

2. Create LSh_Th_LB planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


3. Create RSh_Th_AR planar angle:

  1. Define Resulting Signal Name: RSh_Th_AR
  2. Calculate a 4 point angle between the following targets:

       1 - TARGET::PROCESSED::RCAJ
       2 - TARGET::PROCESSED::LCAJ
       3 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RTA_OR
       4 - LANDMARK::ORIGINAL::RTA_ML
    Angle Direction: Left Hand Rule
    3D Space: Always 0 to 180 degrees
    Projected onto Plane: XZ

    Note: The reference segment will need to be changed to RTA within the text option.

IORFB RSh Th AR.png

2. Create LSh_Th_AR planar angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

    Angle Direction: Right Hand Rule


Translation

Below defines the translation of the shoulder targets (LCAJ/RCAJ) in the trunk coordinate system[1] .

Shoulder Translation Definitions

RA_Tho_Transl

1. Define RA_Tho_Transl:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select TARGET_PATH from drop down list

       Data Name: RA_Tho_Transl

       Target: RCAJ
       Reference Segment: Thorax/Ab
       Resoluation Coordinate System: Thorax/Ab

caption

2. Define LA_Tho_Transl:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

       Target: LCAJ

Joint Angles

The Tho_Pel and Tho_Lab angles are described here[1], while the lower extremity joint angles were created based on the segment coordinate systems described here[2].

Joint Angle Definitions

Thorax Pelvis Angle

1. Define the RTho_Pel_Angle:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select JOINT_ANGLE from drop down list

       Data Name: RTho_Pel_Angle

       Segment: Thorax/Ab
       Reference Segment: Pelvis
       Cardan Sequence: Z-X-Y

  3. Use Negative:
       X: TRUE    Y: FALSE    Z: TRUE

caption

2. Define LTho_Pel_Angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:
  2. Use Negative:
       X: FALSE    Y: TRUE    Z: TRUE

Thorax Lab Angle

3. Define the RTho_Lab_Angle:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select JOINT_ANGLE from drop down list

       Data Name: RTho_Lab_Angle

       Segment: RThorax/Ab
       Reference Segment: VLab
       Cardan Sequence: Z-X-Y

  3. Use Negative:
       X: TRUE    Y: FALSE    Z: TRUE

caption

4. Define LTho_Lab_Angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:
  2. Use Negative:
       X: FALSE    Y: TRUE    Z: TRUE

Hip Angle

5. Define the RHip_Angle:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select JOINT_ANGLE from drop down list

       Data Name: RHip_Angle

       Segment: Right Thigh
       Reference Segment: Pelvis
       Cardan Sequence: Z-X-Y

  3. Use Negative:
       X: FALSE    Y: FALSE    Z: FALSE

caption

6. Define LHip_Angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

       Segment: Left Thigh

  2. Use Negative:
       X: TRUE    Y: TRUE    Z: FALSE

Knee Angle

6. Define the RKnee_Angle:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select JOINT_ANGLE from drop down list

       Data Name: RKnee_Angle

       Segment: Right Shank
       Reference Segment: Right Thigh
       Cardan Sequence: Z-X-Y

  3. Use Negative:
       X: FALSE    Y: FALSE    Z: TRUE

caption

7. Define LKnee_Angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

       Segment: Left Shank
       Reference Segment: Left Thigh

  2. Use Negative:
       X: TRUE    Y: TRUE    Z: TRUE

Ankle Angle

8. Define the RKnee_Angle:

  1. Open the Compute Model Based dialog
  2. Select JOINT_ANGLE from drop down list

       Data Name: RAnkle_Angle

       Segment: Right Virtual Foot
       Reference Segment: Right Shank
       Cardan Sequence: Z-X-Y

  3. Use Negative:
       X: FALSE    Y: FALSE    Z: FALSE

caption

9. Define LAnkle_Angle:

  1. When defining the left signal, use same definitions except set:

       Segment: Left Virtual Foot
       Reference Segment: Left Shank

  2. Use Negative:
       X: TRUE    Y: TRUE    Z: FALSE

IOR Multi-Segment Foot Model

Detailed tutorial focussing on the IOR Multi-Segment Foot model.

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 Leardini, A., F. Biagi , A. Merlo, C. Belvedere, and M.G. Benedetti. "Multi-segment trunk kinematics during locomotion and elementary exercises." Clinical Biomechanics 26 (2011): 562-71
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 2.25 Cappozzo, A., F. Catani , U. Della Croce, and A. Leardini. "Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination." Clinical Biomechanics 10 (1995): 171-78
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 3.28 3.29 3.30 3.31 3.32 3.33 3.34 3.35 3.36 3.37 3.38 3.39 3.40 3.41 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.46 3.47 3.48 3.49 3.50 3.51 3.52 3.53 3.54 3.55 3.56 3.57 3.58 3.59 3.60 3.61 3.62 3.63 3.64 3.65 3.66 3.67 3.68 3.69 3.70 3.71 3.72 3.73 3.74 3.75 3.76 3.77 3.78 3.79 3.80 3.81 3.82 Serge van Sint Jan "Color Atlas of Skeletal Landmark Definitions: Guidelines for Reproducible Manual and Virtual Palpations" 2007 - Churchill Livingstone
Retrieved from ""